The present discussion focuses on dilute ideal gases

For concreteness, the electric field is considered in this article, as this is the most frequent type of field the surface concept is used for.Gaussian surfaces are usually carefully chosen to exploit symmetries of a situation to simplify the calculation of the surface integral. If the Gaussian surface is chosen such that for every point on the surface the component of the electric field along the normal vector is constant, then the calculation will not require difficult integration as the constants which arise can be taken out of the integral.Thereby Q(V) is the electrical charge contained in the interior, V, of the closed surface.As an example , consider a charged spherical shell S of negligible thickness, with a uniformly distributed charge Q and radius R. We can use Gauss’s law to find the magnitude of the resultant electric field E at a distance r from the center of the charged shell.

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